Facing economic, social, and political oppression, thousands of German Jews wanted to flee the Third Reich but found few countries willing to accept them. The quota system allowed only 25, Germans to enter the country every year. After the stock market crash ofrising unemployment caused restrictionist sentiment to grow, and President Herbert Hoover ordered vigorous enforcement of visa regulations. The new policy significantly reduced immigration; in the United States issued only 35, immigration visas.
State Department officials continued their restrictive measures after Franklin D. Although some Americans sincerely believed that the country lacked the resources to accommodate newcomers, the nativism of many others reflected the growing problem of anti-Semitism.
Of course, American anti-Semitism never approached the intensity of Jew-hatred in Nazi Germany, but pollsters found that many Americans looked upon Jews unfavorably. A much more threatening sign was the presence of anti-Semitic leaders and movements on the fringes of American politics, including Father Charles E.
Although the quota walls seemed unassailable, some Americans took steps to alleviate the suffering of German Jews. American Jewish leaders organized a boycott of German goods, hoping that economic pressure might force Hitler to end his anti-Semitic policies, and prominent American Jews, including Louis D.
In response, the Roosevelt administration agreed to ease visa regulations, and infollowing the Nazi annexation of Austria, State Department officials issued all the visas available under the combined German-Austrian quota.
Responding to the increasingly difficult situation of German Jewry, Roosevelt organized the international Evian Conference on the refugee crisis in Although thirty-two nations attended, very little was accomplished because no country was willing to accept a large number of Jewish refugees. The conference did establish an Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, but it failed to devise any practical solutions.
The Nazis attempted to keep the Holocaust a secret, but in AugustDr. Gerhart Riegner, the representative of the World Jewish Congress in Geneva, Switzerland, learned what was going on from a German source.
But the State Department, characteristically insensitive and influenced by anti-Semitism, decided not to inform Wise. He immediately approached Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles, who asked Wise to keep the information confidential until the government had time to verify it.
Wise held a press conference on the evening of November 24, Throughout the rest of the war, the Times and most other newspapers failed to give prominent and extensive coverage to the Holocaust. During World War Ithe American press had published reports of German atrocities that subsequently turned out to be false.
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As a result, journalists during World War II tended to approach atrocity reports with caution. American and British Jewish organizations pressured their governments to take action. As a result, Great Britain and the United States announced that they would hold an emergency conference in Bermuda to develop a plan to rescue the victims of Nazi atrocities.
Ironically, the Bermuda Conference opened in Aprilthe same month the Jews in the Warsaw ghetto were staging their revolt. Rather than discussing strategies, they worried about what to do with any Jews they successfully rescued. Britain refused to consider admitting more Jews into Palestinewhich it administered at the time, and the United States was equally determined not to alter its immigration quotas. Following the futile Bermuda Conference, American Jewish leaders became increasingly involved in a debate over Zionism.
But the Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe, led by Peter Bergson and a small group of emissaries from the Irgun, a right-wing Palestinian Jewish resistance group, turned to pageants, rallies, and newspaper advertisements to force Roosevelt to create a government agency to devise ways to rescue European Jewry. The Emergency Committee and its supporters in Congress helped publicize the Holocaust and the need for the United States to react.
President Roosevelt also found himself under pressure from another source. Treasury Department officials, working on projects to provide aid to European Jews, discovered that their colleagues in the State Department were actually undermining rescue efforts. The establishment of the board did not resolve all the problems blocking American rescue efforts. For example, the War Department repeatedly refused to bomb Nazi concentration camps or the railroads leading to them.
The American public discovered the full extent of the Holocaust only when the Allied armies liberated the extermination and concentration camps at the end of World War II. And as historians struggled to understand what had happened, attention increasingly focused on the inadequate American response and what lay behind it. It remains today the subject of great debate.
But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!For the town in the film canon, see Silent Hill, West Virginia. Silent Hill, Maine is the eponymous and mysterious American rural town serving as the setting for the majority of the Silent Hill video game seriesas well as being the inspiration for the film and comics' setting. On the surface, Silent Hill is portrayed as what could be considered an archetypal, peaceful, New England tourist town for relaxation.
In the first Silent Hillit is described to be a small town with a population below 30, and its key industry, tourism, is in a state of steady decline. However, it is still growing and expanding and may be considered a city by the events of Downpour.
Some of the town's conservative residents oppose modernization and the transformation of the town into a tourist attraction. However, Silent Hill is shown to be anything but ordinary. Although Silent Hill appears at a glance to be an innocuous rural town, this has brought about an unexpected darkness of drug distribution. It is also common to hear air-raid sirens between Fog World and Otherworld shifts.
Sinister traditions and rituals continue to be handed down from a time long ago and are performed in secrecy. Built along the shores of Toluca Lake and located in Toluca CountySilent Hill appears to be an expanding mid-sized town or city.
Surrounded by hills, woodsmountains, and rivers, it has become a destination for boaters and nature lovers. Silent Hill is bisected horizontally by the lake. Because of this, the district of Paleville is in the northern area, and South Vale is on the opposing lake shore. The town's weather is usually foggy and misty, amplified by the lake on colder days, as sunny days are a rarity.
As one approaches Silent Hill from the east along Nathan Avenuealso known as County Road 73, an observation deck can be accessed, providing a fine panoramic view of Toluca Lake and the surrounding woodland.
Various prominent welcome signs are on display near several of the entrances, serving to welcome newcomers upon their arrival. A fan-made map depicting what's seen of Silent Hill in the series. The grey means unknown area and distance. Please note that the Central Silent Hill area may be inaccurate due to discrepancies added by Origins and Homecoming. Silent Hill is divided up into three known distinct districts, each catering to varying demographics of the population.
With each new game that explores the Silent Hill area, its layout typically changes, be it in the form of new streets, new buildings replacing old ones, or entire sections being added to it.Second Sino-Japanese War. The United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9,respectively, with the consent of the United Kingdom, as required by the Quebec Agreement.
The two bombings killed betweenandpeople, most of whom were civilians, and remain the only uses of nuclear weapons in armed conflict. This undertaking was preceded by a conventional and firebombing campaign which devastated 67 Japanese cities. The war in Europe had concluded when Germany signed its instrument of surrender on May 8,and the Allies turned their full attention to the Pacific theater.
The Allies called for the unconditional surrender of the Imperial Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July 26,the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction.
The Allies issued orders for atomic bombs to be used on four Japanese cities on July Another B dropped a plutonium implosion bomb " Fat Man " on Nagasaki three days later. The bombs immediately devastated their targets. Over the next two to four months, the acute effects of the atomic bombings killed between 90, andpeople in Hiroshima and 39, and 80, people in Nagasaki; roughly half of the deaths in each city occurred on the first day.
Large numbers of people continued to die for months afterward from the effects of burns, radiation sicknessand other injuries, compounded by illness and malnutrition. In both cities, most of the dead were civilians, although Hiroshima had a sizable military garrison. Japan surrendered to the Allies on August 15, six days after the Soviet Union 's declaration of war and the bombing of Nagasaki. Scholars have extensively studied the effects of the bombings on the social and political character of subsequent world history and popular cultureand there is still much debate concerning the ethical and legal justification for the bombings.
Most Japanese military units fought fiercely, ensuring that the Allied victory would come at an enormous cost. The 1. Nearly one million of the casualties occurred during the last year of the war, from June to June In DecemberAmerican battle casualties hit an all-time monthly high of 88, as a result of the German Ardennes Offensive. America's reserves of manpower were running out. Deferments for groups such as agricultural workers were tightened, and there was consideration of drafting women.A pike is a pole weapona very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry.
Pikes were used regularly in European warfare from the Late Middle Ages  to the early 18th century, and were wielded by foot soldiers deployed in close quarters, until their replacement by the bayonet. The pike found extensive use with Landsknecht armies and Swiss mercenarieswho employed it as their main weapon and used it in pike square formations.
A similar weapon, the sarissawas also used by Alexander the Great 's Macedonian phalanx infantry to great effect. Generally, a spear becomes a pike when it is too long to be wielded with one hand in combat. The pike was a long weapon, varying considerably in size, from 3 to 7. It was approximately 2. The shaft near the head was often reinforced with metal strips called "cheeks" or langets.
When the troops of opposing armies both carried the pike, it often grew in a sort of arms racegetting longer in both shaft and head length to give one side's pikemen an edge in combat. It is a common mistake to refer to a bladed polearm as a pike; such weapons are more generally halberdsglaives or voulges. The great length of the pikes allowed a great concentration of spearheads to be presented to the enemy, with their wielders at a greater distance, but also made pikes unwieldy in close combat.
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This meant that pikemen had to be equipped with an additional, shorter weapon such as a dagger or mace in order to defend themselves should the fighting degenerate into a melee.
In general, however, pikemen attempted to avoid such disorganized combat, in which they were at a disadvantage. To compound their difficulties in a melee, the pikeman often did not have a shield, or had only a small shield which would be of limited use in close-quarters fighting. The pike, being unwieldy, was typically used in a deliberate, defensive manner, often alongside other missile and melee weapons.
However, better-trained troops were capable of using the pike in an aggressive attack with each rank of pikemen being trained to hold their pikes so that they presented enemy infantry with four or five layers of spearheads bristling from the front of the formation. As long as it kept good order, such a formation could roll right over enemy infantry but it did have weaknesses.
The men were all moving forward facing in a single direction and could not turn quickly or efficiently to protect the vulnerable flanks or rear of the formation.
Nor could they maintain cohesion over uneven ground, as the Scots discovered to their cost at the Battle of Flodden. The huge block of men carrying such unwieldy spears could be difficult to maneuver in any way other than straightforward movement.
As a result, such mobile pike formations sought to have supporting troops protect their flanks or would maneuver to smash the enemy before they could be outflanked themselves. There was also the risk that the formation would become disordered, leading to a confused melee in which pikemen had the vulnerabilities mentioned above. According to Sir John Smythe, there were two ways for two opposing pike formations to confront one another: cautious or aggressive.She could see American cars as they slid down a highway and disappeared toward a ghostly skyline, and she could imagine what lay almost within reach.
But that promised land was also infinitely distant. From the Mexican side of the border, mired in inches of mud that reeked of broken portable toilets, the entire U.
There were more than 5, migrants ahead of them waiting to request asylum in the U. But they were willing to do whatever it took. Going back to Guatemala was simply not an option, they said. The family hid for a day and a half in their house and then sneaked away before dawn.
All told, more thanmigrants filed for asylum in the U. President Donald Trump has labeled the southern border a national crisis. He refused to sign any bill funding the federal government that did not include money for construction of a wall along the frontier, triggering the longest shutdown in American history, and when Democrats refused to budge, he threatened to formally invoke emergency powers.
But the situation on the southern border, however the political battle in Washington plays out, will continue to frustrate this U. President, and likely his successors too, and not just because of continuing caravans making their way to the desert southwest. Months of reporting by TIME correspondents around the world reveal a stubborn reality: we are living today in a global society increasingly roiled by challenges that can be neither defined nor contained by physical barriers.
That goes for climate change, terrorism, pandemics, nascent technologies and cyber-attacks. It also applies to one of the most significant global developments of the past quarter-century: the unprecedented explosion of global migration.
The total number has more than doubled since and ballooned by 36 million since They abandoned their homes for different reasons: tens of millions went in search of better jobs or better education or medical care, and tens of millions more had no choice. More than 5. Hundreds of thousands fled their neighborhoods in Central America and villages in sub-Saharan Africa, driven by poverty and violence.
Others were displaced by catastrophic weather linked to climate change. Taken one at a time, each is an individual, a mixture of strengths and weaknesses, hope and despair. But collectively, they represent something greater than the sum of their parts. The forces that pushed them from their homes have combined with a series of global factors that pulled them abroad: the long peace that followed the Cold War in the developed world, the accompanying expansion of international travel, liberalized policies for refugees and the relative wealth of developed countries, especially in Europe and the U.
The force is tidal and has not been reversed by walls, by separating children from their parents or by deploying troops. The mass movement of people has changed the world both for better and for worse. Migrants tend to be productive. Some will pay for the passage of the next migrant, and the smartphone he or she will keep close at hand. The technology not only makes the journey more efficient and safer—smugglers identify their clients by photos on instant-messaging—but, upon arrival, allows those who left to keep in constant contact with those who remain behind, across oceans and time zones.
Yet attention of late is mostly focused on the impact on host countries. There, national leaders have grappled with a powerful irony: the ways in which they react to new migrants—tactically, politically, culturally—shape them as much as the migrants themselves do.
In some countries, migrants have been welcomed by crowds at train stations. In others, images of migrants moving in miles-long caravans through Central America or spilling out of boats on Mediterranean shores were wielded to persuade native-born citizens to lock down borders, narrow social safety nets and jettison long-standing humanitarian commitments to those in need. The U. Italy refused to allow ships carrying rescued migrants to dock at its ports. Hungary passed laws to criminalize the act of helping undocumented people.
Anti-immigrant leaders saw their political power grow in the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Sweden, Germany, Finland, Italy and Hungary, and migration continued to be a factor in the Brexit debate in the U. These political reactions fail to grapple with a hard truth: in the long run, new migration is nearly always a boon to host countries. In acting as entrepreneurs and innovators, and by providing inexpensive labor, immigrants overwhelmingly repay in long-term economic contributions what they use in short-term social services, studies show.
But to maximize that future good, governments must act -rationally to establish humane policies and adequately fund an immigration system equipped to handle an influx of newcomers. When they left Guatemala on that dark morning, they could hardly consider the news footage that would frame the migrant caravan as a column aimed at breaching the U.The United States government's support of slavery was based on an overpowering practicality.
Ina thousand tons of cotton were being produced every year in the South. Byit was a million tons. In the same period,slaves grew to 4 million.
A system harried by slave rebellions and conspiracies Gabriel Prosser, ; Denmark Vesey, ; Nat Turner, developed a network of controls in the southern states, hacked by the laws, courts, armed forces, and race prejudice of the nation's political leaders. It would take either a full-scale slave rebellion or a full-scale war to end such a deeply entrenched system. If a rebellion, it might get out of hand, and turn its ferocity beyond slavery to the most successful system of capitalist enrichment in the world.
If a war, those who made the war would organize its consequences.
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Hence, it was Abraham Lincoln who freed the slaves, not John Brown. InJohn Brown was hanged, with federal complicity, for attempting to do by small-scale violence what Lincoln would do by large-scale violence several years later-end slavery. With slavery abolished by order of the government-true, a government pushed hard to do so, by blacks, free and slave, and by white abolitionists-its end could be orchestrated so as to set limits to emancipation.
Liberation from the top would go only so far as the interests of the dominant groups permitted. If carried further by the momentum of war, the rhetoric of a crusade, it could be pulled back to a safer position. Thus, while the ending of slavery led to a reconstruction of national politics and economics, it was not a radical reconstruction, but a safe one- in fact, a profitable one.
The plantation system, based on tobacco growing in Virginia, North Carolina, and Kentucky, and rice in South Carolina, expanded into lush new cotton lands in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi-and needed more slaves.
But slave importation became illegal in How can slavery be described? Perhaps not at all by those who have not experienced it. The edition of a best-selling textbook by two northern liberal historians saw slavery as perhaps the Negro's "necessary transition to civilization. But can this describe the reality of slavery as it was to a human being who lived inside it? Are the conditions of slavery as important as the existence of slavery? A record of deaths kept in a plantation journal now in the University of North Carolina Archives lists the ages and cause of death of all those who died on the plantation between and Of the thirty-two who died in that period, only four reached the age of sixty, four reached the age of fifty, seven died in their forties, seven died in their twenties or thirties, and nine died before they were five years old.
But can statistics record what it meant for families to be torn apart, when a master, for profit, sold a husband or a wife, a son or a daughter? Ina slave named Abream Scriven was sold by his master, and wrote to his wife: "Give my love to my father and mother and tell them good Bye for me, and if we Shall not meet in this world I hope to meet in heaven.
One recent book on slavery Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman, Time on the Cross looks at whippings in on the Barrow plantation in Louisiana with two hundred slaves: "The records show that over the course of two years a total of whippings were administered, an average of 0. About half the hands were not whipped at all during the period. That figure 0. But looked at another way, once every four or five days, some slave was whipped.
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In my alternative history story, taking place at the end of the 20th century, one country has an army with platoons of airborne scouts. But unlike modern special forces they don't use combat knives as side-arms, but combat axes. Like this one:. I know that in close-quarter combat killing with a knife is usually faster; you can kill with a single well-placed jab, and an axe requires space to make a swing.
An axe is also harder to conceal. But the main soldier's weapon is an automatic rifle, not a knife or axe. Furthermore, Soviet Army used small sapper shovels :. Soviet Spetsnaz units had advanced training with the MPL, which they mostly used not for entrenching, but for close quarters combat. The spade is well balanced, which allows it to be used as a throwing weapon.
So using axe not just as a tool but also as a last-chance melee and throwing weapon looks possible. An infantry company may all have to perform breaching or they may have a special unit for breaching, but in these scenarios an axe has much more utility and versatility as a tool than a knife. An axe also has more reach and requires less dexterity than a knife, which can be useful with less training where visibility is low and corners are common. It can also cause more damage with a glancing blow and can be reversed to cause the same puncture damage with less force due to levering action with the handle.
Googling around, I was easily able to find references to axes as mechanical breaching tools, often used when explosives are overkill, too dangerous to use in enclosed spaces, or collateral material damage is unacceptable like public spaces or inhabited buildings. For example, this is from a US military Infantry Rifle Company handbook chapter on urban operations :.
Explosive breaching includes using nonelectrical demolition systems; ballistic breaching includes using direct fire weapons; and mechanical breaching includes using crowbars, axes, saws, hooligan's tools, and sledgehammers. The main role of an axe during WWII was to cut wood or material for things such as building a fire, building shelters, etc.
The US Army Ranger Handbook also mentions using hatchets as standard issue tho headlines with a quote from Let the enemy come till he's almost close enough to touch, then let him have it and jump out and finish him up with your hatchet. Level 3 Kit carried in assault pack or ruck water proof container with more of the materials listed in the level 1 and 2 kits plus shelter making materials poncho, tarp, bungee cords, or space blanket and a hatchet or saw.