Here is a simple example to show the relationships of Normal acid and base solutions: a 1N solution of the acid H2SO4 will completely neutralize an equal volume of a 1N solution of the base NaOH.

If you know the Molarity of an acid or base solution, you can easily convert it to Normality by multiplying Molarity by the number of hydrogen or hydroxide ions in the acid or base. However, to make a solution of a predetermined normality requires a bit more calculating. Here are a few examples: H2SO4, sulfuric acid. H3PO4, phosphoric acid. The gram-molecular mass is also NaOH, potassium hydroxide. The gram-molecular mass is The number of hydroxide ions OH- is 1. Once the equivalent mass of an acid or base is determined, you can then calculate the amount of grams needed per volume of water for N. For example, how many grams of sodium hydroxide would you need to dilute to a liter to make a 1N NaOH solution?

The equivalent mass is 40 as determined above. Similarly, to make 0. The number of hydrogen ions it can produce is 1 The acid hydrogens are usually on the left side of a chemical formula. Both of the chemicals in the examples above, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydrogen phthalate, are considered dry chemicals, which makes it relatively straightforward to calculate their Normalities. For liquid chemicals where the main compound is only a fraction of the total volume, such as the concentrated forms of hydrochloric HClsulfuric H2SO4and phosphoric H3PO4 acids, a few additional calculations must be performed to make a solution of a particular Normality.

The next article will describe and give examples of these additional calculations. These are not only useful for making acid and base solutions, but are useful in calculating concentrations of any type of concentrated dissolved compounds such as alum aluminum sulfatebleach sodium hypochloriteferric chloride, and the many other solutions used in wastewater treatment. Please note that this article specifically covers what is typically found in a wastewater treatment laboratory.

There are exceptions to how the concentrations of acids and bases are measured, and this depends on the scope and application of a particular test method. All past articles are posted on our website. Go to www. Acidity and Alkalinity. Ammonia Nitrogen. Making Normal Solutions. BOD Test Requirements. Phosphorus 1. BOD Test Requirements 2. Phosphorus 2.Keep in touch and stay productive with Teams and Microsofteven when you're working remotely. Page breaks are dividers that break a worksheet into separate pages for printing. Microsoft Excel inserts automatic page breaks based on the paper size, margin settings, scale options, and the positions of any manual page breaks that you insert. To print a worksheet with the exact number of pages that you want, you can adjust the page breaks in the worksheet before you print it.

Although you can work with page breaks in Normal view, we recommend that you use Page Break Preview view to adjust page breaks so that you can see how other changes that you make such as page orientation and formatting changes affect the automatic page breaks.

For example, you can see how a change that you make to the row height and column width affects the placement of the automatic page breaks. To override the automatic page breaks that Excel inserts, you can insert your own manual page breaks, move existing manual page breaks, or delete any manually-inserted page breaks. You can also quickly remove all the manually-inserted page breaks. After you finish working with page breaks, you can return to Normal view.

In Page Break Previewdashed lines are page breaks Excel automatically added. Solid lines are page breaks that were added manually. You can also click Page Break Preview on the status bar.

To insert a horizontal page break, select the column to the right of where you want to insert the page break. You can also right-click the row or column below or to the right of where you want to insert the page break, and then click Insert Page Break. To use the manual page breaks, change the scaling to Adjust to instead. If this feature is not enabled, you may not be able to move any page breaks. In the Advanced category, under Editing optionsselect the Enable fill handle and cell drag-and-drop check box, and then click OK.

To delete a vertical page break, select the column to the right of the page break that you want to delete.

You can also remove a page break by dragging it outside of the page break preview area to the left past the row headers, or up past the column headers. If you cannot drag page breaks, make sure that the drag-and-drop feature is enabled. For more information, see Move an existing page break.

To return to Normal view after you finish working with the page breaks, on the View tab, in the Workbook Views group, click Normal. You can also click Normal on the status bar.How many liters of a 6. You want 85 g of KOH. How much of a 3. If you dissolve 0. A solution is prepared by adding 2. What is the molarity of the new solution?

Remember, the volumes are additive. L solution. Convert the following Molarities to Normalities. A commonly purchased disinfectant is a 3. Assuming the density of the solution is 1. A solution is made by dissolving 25 g of NaCl in enough water to make 1.

Assume the density of the solution is 1. Calculate the molarity and molality of the solution. What is the mass percent of a solution that contains g of KNO 3 in 7. A solution has been prepared to be 9.

For every How many grams of KBr are contained in What is the concentration of each type of ion and total concentration of ions in a 0. How many moles of chloride ions are in 1.The standard normal distribution is a normal distribution of standardized values called z -scores.

A z -score is measured in units of the standard deviation. For example, if the mean of a normal distribution is five and the standard deviation is two, the value 11 is three standard deviations above or to the right of the mean. The calculation is as follows:. The mean for the standard normal distribution is zero, and the standard deviation is one.

Some doctors believe that a person can lose five pounds, on the average, in a month by reducing his or her fat intake and by exercising consistently. Suppose weight loss has a normal distribution. Use a standard deviation of two pounds. Fill in the blanks. This was previously shown. The z -score allows us to compare data that are scaled differently. A negative weight gain would be a weight loss.

Jerome averages 16 points a game with a standard deviation of four points. Suppose Jerome scores ten points in a game.

The mean height of 15 to year-old males from Chile from to was cm with a standard deviation of 6. Male heights are known to follow a normal distribution. Suppose a 15 to year-old male from Chile was cm tall from to From tothe mean height of 15 to year-old males from Chile was In1, students took the SAT exam. Interpret each z -score. Suppose x has a normal distribution with mean 50 and standard deviation 6. Use empirical rule to interpret the data distribution.

Suppose X has a normal distribution with mean 25 and standard deviation five. The variable Y is normally distributed. Data from the National Basketball Association. Available online at www. A z -score is a standardized value. The mean of the z -scores is zero and the standard deviation is one.

Skip to main content. Normal Distribution. Search for:. Values of x that are larger than the mean have positive z -scores. Values of x that are smaller than the mean have negative z -scores. If x equals the mean, then x has a z -score of zero.May 7, References Approved.

Insert, move, or delete page breaks in a worksheet

This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. This article has been viewedtimes. Learn more Many chemical substances are available in a dissolved liquid form, rather than a solid form. Liquid chemicals are easier to dispense and measure than solid ones, especially since the solid form is usually a powder.

However, the stoichiometry of chemical reactions is complicated by the liquid delivery method. Stoichiometry performs calculations using the amount of the desired substance being placed into the equations.

The liquid used to dissolve the substance will not participate in the reaction, and stoichiometry will not take that liquid in to account in the reaction. The amount of the reacting substance being delivered can be determined by finding the normality of the solution. Use these tips to learn how to calculate normality.

6.3: Using the Normal Distribution

Gather information about the equivalent weight of the reacting substance. Consult chemical reference books to find out the valence and the molecular weight of the substance. Molecular weight is the ratio of the mass of 1 molecule of the substance to the mass one carbon12 molecule divided by Figure the equivalent weight of the substance.

The equivalent weight of the substance is equal to the molecular weight divided by the valence. Calculate normality. Normality is the concentration of the substance of interest in a dissolving liquid. Therefore, normality is a property of the mixture, and will vary with the use of more or less dissolving liquid to place the substance of interest into a solution. Try an example. Dissolve sodium chloride NaCl in water.

Sodium chloride has a valence of 1 and a molecular weight of Therefore, the equivalent weight is Probabilities are calculated using technology. To calculate the probability, use the probability tables provided in [link] without the use of technology. The tables include instructions for how to use them.

The final exam scores in a statistics class were normally distributed with a mean of 63 and a standard deviation of five. The number 10 99 is way out in the right tail of the normal curve. We are calculating the area between 65 and 10 The number —10 99 is way out in the left tail of the normal curve. The probability is the area to the right. To find the probability that a selected student scored more than 65, subtract the percentile from 1.

Find the 90 th percentile. For each problem or part of a problem, draw a new graph. Shade the area that corresponds to the 90 th percentile. The 90 th percentile is To get this answer on the calculator, follow this step:. The 70 th percentile is The golf scores for a school team were normally distributed with a mean of 68 and a standard deviation of three. Find the probability that a randomly selected golfer scored less than A personal computer is used for office work at home, research, communication, personal finances, education, entertainment, social networking, and a myriad of other things.

Suppose that the average number of hours a household personal computer is used for entertainment is two hours per day. Assume the times for entertainment are normally distributed and the standard deviation for the times is half an hour. The probability that a household personal computer is used between 1. The maximum number of hours per day that the bottom quartile of households uses a personal computer for entertainment is 1. Find the probability that a golfer scored between 66 and There are approximately one billion smartphone users in the world today.As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 79, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more.

Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Normal distribution is a way of distributing data, and you can ensure your proficiency with its use through this combination of assessments.

Practice questions in the quiz will have you solve for variables in a number of real life situations based on standard deviation, as well as identifying properties of normal distribution. Objectives covered within this lesson include:. Log in. Sign Up. Explore over 4, video courses.

How To Calculate Molality Given Mass Percent, Molarity \u0026 Density, and Volume Percent - Chemistry

Find a degree that fits your goals. Try it risk-free for 30 days. Instructions: Choose an answer and hit 'next'. You will receive your score and answers at the end. You are creating a tree house and have made the doorway into the structure 71 inches tall.

Suppose the average height of adult males is 68 inches with a standard deviation of 3 inches. What percentage of men will have to bend their heads to get into the house?

Cancel anytime. The tail lengths of a certain animal are normally distributed with a mean length of 1. What percentage of these animals have a tail that is at most one foot long? A distribution of data has a mean of 15 and a standard deviation of 2. How many standard deviations away from the mean is a value of 13? It is one standard deviation above the mean. Create your account to access this entire worksheet.

Create an account to get started Create Account. Objectives covered within this lesson include: Define key concepts, such as normal distribution and the empirical rule Relate normal distribution to real life applications, like the life span of tires Explain why normal distribution has its distinct shape Solve practice problems in the lesson using normal distribution and standard deviation.

Practice Exams. Final Exam. Statistics Principles of Statistics. Continuous Probability Distributions. You are viewing lesson Lesson 5 in chapter 6 of the course:. Overview of Statistics. Summarizing Data. Tables and Plots. Discrete Probability Statistical Estimation.